Cotton mill workers from Indianapolis, circa 1908. Hull House was among the first examples of what we today call social work, efforts to help the social conditions of people without necessarily addressing the root causes, such as pay or unemployment. Government programs such as pensions (social security) and unemployment insurance were started during the presidency of Democrat President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (in office from 1933 to 1945); they have continued, and even expanded, in the decades since, during both Democratic and Republican administrations. Railroad lines expanded from 35,000 miles in 1865 to 254,000 miles in 1916. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. The average non-Ford laborer earned less than $800 a year for a six-day workweek. 4- Telephone. The reality of the Industrial Revolution was reflected in changes in government and politics, as well as in new social organizations that were established independent of the government. The prospect of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, along with the after effects of 200 years of man's unquenching thirst for more power, control, and wealth during the first and second industrial revolutions has really accelerated the odds that are dangerously close in … Practically every aspect of everyday life had altered dramatically over the past century. One milestone in the history of American labor unions was the 1894 strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company of Pullman, Illinois. Despite union support, Bryan lost to the Republican candidate, William Howard Taft (1857–1930). Life, Fall 1990, p. 62. Yet after World War I, the railroad would be replaced by the automobile. During this period, industrial production was gradually moving to Asia, to be replaced in the United States by new industries such as computer technologies and entertainment, as well as by service industries such as health care and finance (see Chapter 8). Some people accused Roosevelt of promoting socialism through government control of the economy, others credited him with saving the economy from socialism by alleviating suffering without attacking private ownership of business. Labor Uni…, Social and Political Impact of the First Phase of the Industrial Revolution, Sochaczew, Abraham ben Ze'ev Nahum Bornstein of, Soccer (U.S.) Strength and Training Exercises, Social Assessment in Health Promotion Planning, Social Class System and the Economy: Chronology, Social Class System and the Economy: Documentary Sources, Social Class System and the Economy: Overview, Social Class System and the Economy: Significant People, Social Class System and the Economy: Topics in Social Class System and the Economy, http://www.boondocksnet.com/labor/history/, http://news.mpr.org/features/200112/10_mainstreet_ourtown-m/rebekahs.shtml. Driven partly by fear of what might happen in the future, consumers order fewer goods, manufacturers produce less and hire fewer workers. This caused people to be infected with lung diseases and it was hard for people to keep their houses and clothes clean from the dust. Many farmers saw their crops dry up and die for lack of rain. This opposition to organized labor characterized U.S. law as well. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION It has been followed by the Third Industrial Revolution in which digital communications technology and the internet changed how we transmit information, do business and interact with each other. Into this atmosphere marched Mary Harris Jones (1830–1930), one of the most colorful characters in the history of labor unions. It seemed there were always more workers willing to take jobs than there were jobs to go around. The history of American labor unions is almost as long, and as complex, as the history of the Industrial Revolution itself. Taking advantage of the emergency, Lewis successfully bargained for payments by employers to contribute money to a union fund that would in turn pay union members a pension (pay that continues after retirement) after age 62. Although the Industrial Revolution overall resulted in economic growth, it also had an unwelcome side effect: the economic slowdown. In the United States, notable periods of economic slowdown have occurred in 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893, 1914, 1929, 1957, 1982, 1991, and 2001, with other less severe downturns in between. Enormous clouds of dust that looked like tornadoes swept through Oklahoma, forcing families off their farms and into a desperate migration to California, where they were stopped from entering at the state border. And just as the business owners tried to buy the least expensive raw materials, so did they try to save money on the cost of hiring workers. The labor federation defeated Gompers's bid for reelection to a one-year term as union president and instead chose John McBride, who favored a more political, socialist-oriented approach. After the Civil War, the Republican Party largely dominated the federal government. People who once were scattered among scores of small farms in the countryside were now living in cities, working for employers who in many respects viewed their employees as living parts of a complex machine called the factory. The period of U.S. history since 1952 (a year marked by the election of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower as president) might be best described as post-industrial, a period when the rapid changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution slowed. Within a few years, economic activity had dropped sharply. It was, in Pullman's view, a model town. Such profound transformations hardly went unnoticed. The new CIO in turn became affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, but it was not a happy alliance. Business owners strongly resisted unions. But the most widespread, and eventually the most effective, approach to fight the leaders of industrialization was to form a labor union. The Second Industrial Revolution ended just before World War I, historians say. Also that year, striking miners dynamited the Frisco Mill in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. 20001-2198 Woods, issued an order barring leaders of the American Railway Union from encouraging members to interfere with railroad traffic. The ruling also included guidelines about how companies could use the name Standard in their new operations. Gompers set about making the union a more important force in workers' lives. Encouraging the growth of industry by taxing imported manufactured goods (1820–1860). Two other approaches involved forming voluntary associations (sometimes along ethnic lines) called fraternal orders and engaging in efforts known as social work that helped those in need. Then innovations in production line technology, materials science and industrial toolmaking made it easier to mass produce all kinds of goods that remade the American family and physical landscape. Factory Products Remade Life in America. Actively alleviating suffering resulting from economic depression (1932 to present). All these words represent the same basic thing: a widespread and relatively sudden decrease in economic activity. No provision was made in the Constitution for aiding large numbers of people in cities who were without jobs, money, food, or homes. Within fifteen minutes, 146 women had died. The average non-Ford laborer earned less than $800 a year for a six-day workweek. Starting in 1868, with the Standard Oil Company incorporated in Ohio, Rockefeller had steadily bought a series of oil refineries and other companies associated with the petroleum business. Some trains were set on fire. Sometimes, agriculture and industry have been in conflict, and industry did not always carry the day. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989. The fraternal orders did, however, offer life insurance and medical insurance to members, filling a gap created by the surging population and lack of government alternatives. The debate over tariffs continued right up to the early 1860s and was one of the issues that led to the American Civil War (1861–65). The causes of the stock market crash, as it was known, were complex. Others problems created by urbanization include, increased crime rates, poverty, deforestation, and the formation of slums (considered to be one of the worst effects of urbanization). Gorn, Elliott J. According to Mantoux (30), there was arise in various classes of people among them the producer royales and state factories who had immense power attributed to … Firemen tried to rescue the women, but their ladders reached only to the sixth floor, one floor below the factory, and women jumping from the windows tore through fire nets as they plummeted, holding hands in groups of three or four. Historians conventionally divide the Industrial Revolution into two approximately consecutive parts. In the campaign to defeat socialism in the United States, some opponents linked it to the "Old World" of Europe, where most socialist theorists had originated, thereby suggesting that socialism was unpatriotic. In 1889 Addams and a friend, Ellen Starr, rented part of an old mansion in Chicago and called it Hull House. The National Labor Relations Act redressed what had been an imbalance in the U.S. economy. Calhoun's protest raised the idea of secession (a state withdrawing from the United States) for the first time. The governor showed that the trial had been a travesty of justice, and that the judge had allowed citizens with strong prejudices against unions to serve on the jury, while the prosecution never offered any proof that the accused had anything to do with the bomb. “It was a tremendous transformation of people’s lives,” says Joshua B. Freeman professor of history at Queens College and author of Behemoth: The Making of the Factory and the Modern World. In 1914 automobile giant Henry Ford (1863–1947) made headline news when he started paying workers $5.00 a day—roughly double what other manufacturers were paying at the time. The job of government has come to be seen as helping people as well as helping businesses expand. It also established the National Labor Relations Board, giving the federal government a role in helping companies and unions avoid strikes by providing professional mediators. Levy, Elizabeth, and Tad Richards. One thing was certain: the role of the government had changed drastically in response to dire emergency. During this era, the nation underwent fast economic growth and there were several reason that led to this. The union leader Debs was arrested for refusing to obey the judges' order to end the strike, and he was sentenced to six months in jail. Gompers served as its president, a post he held for the rest of his life, with the exception of one year. ." They often were willing to work for low wages, any wages, in order to buy food for their families. Even after selling their stocks, investors did not have enough to repay the loans. Use this chart to compare the effects of the revolution on the North, South, West, and Midwest. Only two Democrats, Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson, were elected in that period, each of whom served two terms.) Almost from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the people most directly affected by industrialization had responded. Unions are organizations of workers who have banded together to bargain with an employer for higher wages, shorter hours, and other improvements in their working conditions. Eventually, starting in the 1930s, some of these separate companies merged, but the enormous combination created by John D. Rockefeller was never reassembled. As investors realized that prices had reached a peak, they started selling shares to take advantage of prices that were still high. After the strike, Pullman insisted that workers promise not to join any union as a condition of going back to work, and he refused to rehire local union leaders. What is called the first Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-18th century to about 1830 and was mostly confined to Britain.The second Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-19th century until the early 20th century and took place in Britain, continental Europe, North America, and Japan. As an effect of industrialization, classes in the well being of people increased. A business large enough to be able to control the price of a product without regard to competition. ." Even Henry Ford, who voluntarily doubled his workers' pay in 1914, was the target of bitter clashes a few years later between his company and unions representing his workers. The government wanted the company broken up in order to restore competition between the two constituent companies, and thereby to avoid higher prices for both passengers and companies shipping freight by rail. The Industrial Revolution changed economic, political and social factors. Rockefeller often used the word Standard in company names. After World War II, when the Republican Party achieved a majority in Congress, Ohio senator Robert Taft (a Republican and son of the former president) tried to counter union influence by passing the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, which amended the 1935 National Labor Relations Act and imposed new limits on union rights. Workers were viewed as individuals who should agree to work for certain wages, or not work at all. How the Second Industrial Revolution Changed Americans' Lives Factory Jobs Were Grueling. It increased wealth. Attitudes toward organized labor have been hostile or friendly, largely depending on the political party in power. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Unemployment was a thing of the past; the gears of industry were humming along. Many investors decided that stocks were over-priced. 16 Oct. 2020 . Pullman thought his town made good business sense. "Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution In 1947, for example, the Republican-controlled Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act over President Truman's veto. In 1935 the United Mine Workers Union led in the formation of the CIO, a federation of other unions organized by industry: the International Typographical Union; Amalgamated Clothing Workers; International Ladies' Garment Workers; United Textile Workers; Oil Field, Gas Well, and Refinery Workers; United Hatters, Cap, and Millinery Workers; and International Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. In the chart, you will identify the political, social, economic, population, and transportation changes that the revolution brought to each region. Third, the CIO was active politically. It was an era when industrial growth created a class of wealthy entrepreneurs and a comfortable middle class supported by workers who were made up by immigrants and arrivals from America’s farms and small towns. (Common law is the body of old English customs that were legally enforceable, even without a specific law.) Four of them were hanged on November 11, 1887, one committed suicide in jail, and the remaining two were pardoned (freed) by the governor of Illinois, John Altgeld (1847–1902), six years later. When this selling becomes widespread, the result is an economic slowdown. Electricity, like petroleum, was a key enabling technology of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution. At the same time, the workers who operated the new machinery wanted to earn as much money as possible from their jobs. This squeeze made many workers desperate, and in 1894 Pull-man's workers organized a local branch of the American Railway Union. In 1864 Gompers joined the cigar makers' union, and ten years later he became the president of its local chapter (branch). On the other hand, the Republicans resisted efforts supported by workers to pass laws that would limit the length of the work day or provide protection for women and children employed in factories. The day after the meeting, three members of the union delegation who had met with Pullman were fired. A synergy between iron and steel, and railroads and coal developed at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. On July 2, two federal judges, Peter S. Grosscup and William A. Many strikes in the period from 1865 to 1900 turned violent as strikers tried to physically stop nonunion people from entering a struck company, or as companies hired private guards to escort strikebreakers (workers hired to replace the striking employees) through picket lines. What is Second Industrial Revolution? When social activist Jane Addams threw a Christmas party at the group home she had just founded in Chicago’s slums in 1889, she passed out candy to the impoverished girls who lived there. On the one hand, the Republicans believed in letting business alone to pursue their interests as they saw fit, without government interference. Sometimes the conflict has been resolved peacefully, oftentimes it has not. The second Industrial Revolution took place in the period of 1871 to 1913, and science had the direct impacts, such as the new industries of chemical, electric and the internal combustion engine were based on sciences. The second industrial revolution was said to be between 1870 and 1914, after the civil war. READ MORE: The History of Firearms in the U.S. In 1893 an economic downturn (the term "recession" was used a century later to describe this phenomenon) had reduced the demand for Pullman's cars. The number of employees represented by unions grew from 3.6…, Unions Negatives of the Industrial Revolution Pollution: industrial revolution is often considered to be a major source of pollution; before the advent of the industrial revolution and the various factories there was little by way of pollution. Universal History Archive/UIG/Getty Images. The Roosevelt administration's most famous case was Standard Oil Co. v. United States. For the most part, the Republican Party, which was formed in 1854, adopted policies favorable to the emerging industrial corporations of the era. Pullman refused, but he agreed to look into other complaints about the behavior of foremen in his shops. In the twentieth century, the federal government turned to other taxes (or reductions in taxes) to influence the behavior of consumers and businesses alike. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973. From the mid-1930s it focused its efforts on influencing the Democratic Party to adopt positions that favored its members (as opposed to the owners of factories, whom the Republicans favored). Indoor plumbing was rare except in the homes of the middle class (such as those of doctors). Urbanization. Solidarity.com: Wisconsin's Link to Labor.http://www.solidarity.com/HisSpr.htm (accessed on February 20, 2003). Taxes were cut to make more money available to be spent (by both businesses and consumers), or to encourage businesses to invest in new factories as a means of stimulating economic growth. Work often began at a young age: thirteen, ten, or even six. Artisans into Workers: Labor in Nineteenth-Century America. Laurie, Bruce. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Efforts to organize workers to bargain for higher wages, shorter hours, and better conditions usually focused on a single company, or industry, or region. The chief concerns of the British government in the 1700s were protecting the country from foreign attack and protecting private property from possible attempts by the poor to seize wealth via a revolution, or even via a democratic vote. 1. In 1911, the Supreme Court issued its ruling in the case, agreeing with the government and ordering that Standard Oil be broken up into independent companies. In 1914 company guards and Colorado militiamen fired into a union tent at Ludlow, Colorado, killing nineteen, including twelve children. The introduction of electricity and its two main uses aside from communications—electric motors and electric lighting—introduced some of the most dramatic and pervasive social changes of the Industrial Revolution. In some respects, the CIO was a reflection of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, since it focused on workers in so-called mass-production industries like coal, steel, automobiles, rubber, glass, and textiles. He ordered that his grave be lined in concrete, fearing that resentful union members might try to vandalize it. With the Pullman company refusing to bargain with the strikers on either the issue of reduced wages or the rent the company charged to its workers to live in company-owned houses near the Pullman factory, occasional fights erupted between frustrated workers and the armed guards hired by the railroads. U.S.A. The march served to attract national attention to the plight of women and children working in factories. The Chicago district attorney, strongly backed by a press campaign led by the publisher of the Chicago Tribune newspaper, seized on the incident as an opportunity to get rid of labor organizers, some of whom advocated anarchism. In 1904 six miners were killed during a battle between striking miners and militiamen (the National Guard) at Dunnville, Colorado. Miners were a special case among workers, since many lived in towns owned by mine operators and faced constant dangers inside the mines. Employers used the fresh supply of inexpensive labor to combat the influence of trade unions and to keep wages low. English law, like governments in general, frowned on unofficial groups getting together to achieve their objectives. A shoemaking company that went out of business as a result sued the workers and lost. Should the government take a leading role in helping people suffering from unemployment, poverty, or homelessness? For many, the shift from rural to factory life was grueling—especially for children. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co., 1977. As a consequence, Economic growth means that factories are producing more and more. (In 2002, for example, the U.S. government imposed a 30 percent tariff on some types of imported steel to help U.S. manufacturers compete against foreign companies). This organization was an alliance of unions that represented skilled workers, such as cigar makers, carpenters, and plumbers, regardless of their employer. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Twenty Years at Hull-House. Efforts to alleviate a variety of problems often encountered by poorer people, such as unemployment, poverty, and lack of housing. The Industrial Revolution, which was the sparked by other revolutions, was the spark of equality between men and women. The second Industrial Revolution came about after the Civil War ended and early into the Twentieth century. From 1865 to 1900 federal tariffs averaged 47 percent of the price of imports. After the Civil War, the federal government sometimes took a more aggressive stand against unions as strikes became more frequent, a sign of the growing influence of unions. In this way, Gompers's organization resembled medieval guilds (associations of skilled craftsmen that set rules and standards for their work). Socialists, who sought political and economic equality for all people, were also active in the United States, but they were not as successful in elections as their counterparts in Europe. The Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal for companies to conspire with one another to set (fix) prices on goods sold across state lines. The sight of so many unemployed caused a further contraction of sales, which led to more layoffs. If the crops failed because of drought or plant disease, farmers became refugees headed for the city to find work. Bread and Roses: Poetry and History of the American Labor Movement.http://www.boondocksnet.com/labor/history/ (accessed on February 20, 2003). “People are coming from rural backgrounds who are used to self-directing their work, which is organized around the seasons and light,” Freeman says. BIBLIOGRAPHY What was the government to do, if anything? Charity was assigned to churches or to voluntary social workers, like Jane Addams. The Second Industrial Revolution affected the regions of the United States differently. Whether politicians favored tax breaks for individuals or for businesses, there was little argument that the government should play an active role in helping to manage the overall economy. (Ford paid his workers better in part so they could afford to buy the cars they were making, generating more sales—and profits—for Ford.) Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. In this respect it differed from existing unions of workers with specific skills, such as cigar making, carpenters, or plumbers. You will learn about the effects of the Industrial Revolution on living and working conditions, urbanization (the growth of cities), child labor, public health, working class family life, the role of women, the emerging middle class, and economic growth and income. 2. At its peak, the Ford Motor Company factory in Michigan employed 40,000 workers under one big roof. With the hostilities came a need for weapons, and lots of them. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. The combination of low pay for long hours (ten hours a day, six days a week was typical) and unsafe working conditions was characteristic of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution. The Second Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid industrial development, primarily in the United... Industry and technology. Southern cotton plantations supplied the raw material, cotton, for factories in Britain as well as in New England, and Southerners saw no reason to pay more for fabric (as a result of tariffs) in order to benefit businesses in New England. The basic law of supply and demand set in: there were more stocks for sale than investors to buy them, and as a result prices started falling. Those who still lived in rural areas used new machinery and chemicals to raise crops or livestock that would be transported to faraway markets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. In New York Gompers and his family lived in another slum where families were jammed into two- or three-room apartments. Suddenly a bomb exploded among the police, killing seven. In the newly organized United States of 1776, the role of government was seen as being minimal: protect the new nation from foreign attack and look after issues that might arise as a result of commerce that crossed state or international boundaries. “The advantage is if you are out in the field and something goes wrong, someone can send you that part and fix it without having to redo the entire gun.”. The following year troops quelled rioting by striking miners at Cripple Creek. Most of the strikers went back to work at their old wages. Telephone: (202) 624-6800 The modern universities, research institutes and laboratories The Haymarket Square incident marked the end of the Knights of Labor. Fearing a national emergency without continuing supplies of coal, President Harry Truman (1884–1972) took over operation of the mines on May 22, 1946, and threatened to draft striking miners into the army. But in early October, prices stopped rising. At the same time, ideas and news spread via newspapers, the radio and telegraph. Excerpt from "Tenement-House Cigar Manufacture" Business owners viewed both as threats to their property and prosperity.) The expansion of unions, and their influence, often took place through well-publicized events such as strikes, riots, or disasters, which in turn attracted workers from other companies or industries to join union ranks. The Pullman workers asked other railroad workers to refuse to work on trains that were pulling Pullman's cars, and in June, the American Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs (1855–1926), agreed. "African American Labor History Links." The girls said they worked long hours in a candy factory and couldn’t stand the sight or smell of it. (Throughout history owners have sometimes disputed this idea; workers seldom have.) Mine workers—primarily coal miners—had a long history of union organization that included many incidents of violence. "Losing a Sense of Belonging." However, the date of retrieval is often important. As the second phase of the Industrial Revolution resulted in enormousgrowth in individual businesses, economic downturns also became larger, partly because they affected more people who worked in factories. It is a story that took place through negotiations, violence, and political elections. The following year, Gompers stood for reelection and defeated McBride. (The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 gave workers the right to organize andbelong to unions; the Taft-Hartley Act put limits on how unions could go about achieving their goals.). . After Roosevelt's death in 1945, Republicans continued to resist some New Deal programs, or to modify them. The rise of cities was one of the defining and most lasting features of the Industrial … Urbanization & Other Effects of the Industrial Revolution: Social & Economic Impacts Migration from Rural to Urban Settings in Europe and the U.S.: History and Effects Some observers feared that workers would start a revolution, similar to the 1917 communist revolution that had taken place in Russia just twelve years earlier. First published in 1910. Fueled by all the fabric, the fire spread rapidly to all three floors of the factory. Roosevelt became known as a "trust buster" for the legal challenges he mounted against monopolies. ; mountains had been blasted and bored George Pullman ( 1831–1897 ), and lots of them by bullets by! With the development of the Sherman Antitrust Act, little was done enforce... Factories that produce quality products have increased in numbers rapidly, economic activity turns for Sunday.. Was John L. Lewis ( 1880–1969 ), one of the Stock market crash, as.! 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