Doc. Affiliation. 1933, 2, 15, 10–11, 6, MRL Pamphlets, UTS. Many Congolese villagers at first avoided the mission schools because they had a religious agenda that threatened to undermine their cultural values and beliefs. Some of the major things that affects the population is AIDS and the murdering of natives during the time of Belgian colonization of Congo. “Fetishes and charms were discarded,” he reported, “polygamists put away their extra wives and the services in our villages became crowded.” Another Baptist missionary, a physician, testified that Kimbangu had healed a “cripple.” Here, perhaps, was the long-awaited work of the Holy Spirit. Kimbangu interpreted Protestant missionary refrains into an African-led religious movement that implicitly and sometimes explicitly challenged colonial rule. Culture- About half of the population believes in Roman Catholic, while Protestants takes up 20 percent. The CPC's new secretary, British missionary H. Wakelin Coxill, insisted that Protestant missionaries would readily sign a pledge of allegiance to the government and faithfully ensured their church members’ allegiance to Belgium: “Far from teaching our people to put personal judgment over all authority, we try to teach them to respect all authority, and to ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's.’” Anyone who knew “our Christians,” he claimed, would find them every bit as “respectful to the white races and to law and order than [any] others.” Coxill clearly offered the missions as an instrument of colonial control, so much so that the CPC avoided circulating this letter outside of Belgium in order to avoid aggravating some U.S. Protestants, especially African Americans, who had been complaining about missionary complicity with colonial regimes.Footnote 73, Coxill's statement was in no way exceptional for the CPC of this era. Private European and American corporations invested heavily in the Belgian Congo after World War I. 71 Ross to Governor General, 25 July 1932, box 289, IMC-CBMS, SOAS. Meanwhile, Belgian authorities privileged Belgian national unity over religious difference, structurally privileging Catholic missions while recognizing limited rights for “foreign” churches under Belgian and international law. Belgian Catholic missionary churches, schools, and hospitals insulated the Congolese people from subversive influences, they believed, and fostered their loyalty to Belgium. On the historical imbrications of secularism with imperial power, see Asad, Talal, Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mandair, Arvind-Pal S., Religion and the Specter of the West: Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality, and the Politics of Translation (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Kahn, Jonathon S. and Lloyd, Vincent W., eds., Race and Secularism in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Wenger, Religious Freedom. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. On these broader colonial discourses, see Tiffany Hale, “Hostiles and Friendlies: Memory, U.S. Institutions, and the 1890 Ghost Dance,” PhD diss., Yale University, 2017. Belgian Empireball. See Nelson, Christian Missionizing; Fast, Anicka, “Sacred Children and Colonial Subsidies: The Missionary Performance of Racial Separation in Belgian Congo, 1946–1959,” Missiology 46, 2 (2018): 124–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar, https://doi.org/10.1177/0091829618761375; Kabongo-Mbaya, L’Église Du Christ Au Zaïre; Boyle, Patrick M., “School Wars: Church, State, and the Death of the Congo,” Journal of Modern African Studies 33, 3 (1995): 451–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar. "subject": true, Léopold convinced the international community that he shared in the humanitarian goals asserted by other imperialists at the time, including the benevolent aims of Christian missions and the elimination of slavery. And yet, religion also acted as a bridge. The educational system was mainly dominated by the Roman Catholic Church and sometimes by Protestant churches. 58 de Hemptinne, M., “La Politique des Missions Protestantes au Congo” (Elisabethville 1929)Google Scholar, Missionary Research Library Pamphlets, UTS (hereafter, MRL Pamphlets, UTS). While Catholics identified Protestantism as inherently political and saw no problem with state support for their own “national” missions, Protestants argued that the state must ensure complete equity among religious groups and the freedom of each individual to choose between them. And finally, indigenous Congolese prophets called out the injustices and brutality of colonialism. 5 Ewans, Martin, European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and Its Aftermath (New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002)Google Scholar; Dunn, Kevin, Imagining the Congo: The International Relations of Identity (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)Google Scholar; Grant, Kevin, A Civilized Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926 (London: Routledge, 2005), 39–78Google Scholar; Pavlakis, Dean, British Humanitarianism and the Congo Reform Movement, 1896–1913 (London: Routledge, 2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. “The thriving of Protestantism in mission countries is always accompanied by the rising desires towards liberating independence,” the editors warned. WARNING: This blog contains real stories and pictures of violence, atrocities, brutalities and bizaare news that are not seen on TV. Any persecution that occurred could be blamed on bigoted individuals, who existed on both sides of the Protestant-Catholic divide.Footnote 71 Similarly, in response to the second memorandum, Colonial Minister Tschoffen explained that while the government would continue to honor the principle of religious freedom and to show “goodwill” toward the Protestant missions, no treaty required the government to grant these “foreign” initiatives the privileges reserved for the “national” missions. The Congo Crisis (French: Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965. At a 1918 CCC meeting, missionaries fretted over the power held by “large concessionaire companies … over the native population and over their lands.” The Belgian government had granted these companies virtually free rein over Congolese labor in the rubber industry. 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