The valleys and hill ranges of the northwest lie east of Lake Maracaibo and form, in part, a transitional upland zone between the Coastal and Andean mountains. In 1863 Venezuela became the first country to abolish capital punishment for all crimes, including serious offenses against the state (e.g., treason and military offenses in time of war). Human habitation of Venezuela is estimated to have commenced at least 15,000 years ago, from which period leaf-shaped flake tools, together with chopping and plano-convex scraping implements, have been found exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Rio Pedregal in western Venezuela. Venezuela revived its claims on British Guiana in 1962, an issue that went to the United Nations for mediation in the early 1980s but still had not been resolved in the early 21st century. After mostly dictatorial rule, in 1958 democracy at last comes to the country, and has endured (more or less) to the present day. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. The Bolivian Republic of Venezuela is considered one of Latin America’s most urbanized countries, with most of its 29-million-strong population living in cities in the north of the country. … Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. Oil began being exported out of Venezuela in the early 20 th The nation’s oil boom is reported to have begun in 1927. …had flown in 1806 in Venezuela. Naiguatá Peak, at 9,072 feet (2,765 metres), is the highest point in the coastal system. Military leaders ruled Venezuela for many years. https://www.britannica.com/topic/history-of-Venezuela, Latin Americans in Major League Baseball Through the First Years of the 21st Century: The 1960s through the 1990s, capital punishment: The abolition movement, history of Latin America: The north and the culmination of independence, Latin American architecture: Contemporary architecture, c. 1965–the present. Along the southern border with Brazil are groups of massive plateaus and steep-sided mesas, known as tepuis (tepuyes), capped with erosion-resistant sandstone and covered with intermingled savanna and semideciduous forest. In the intermontane valleys are the major cities of Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay, and all but the steepest slopes are populated. Try. Other notable dictators included Cipriano Castro who ruled between1899 and 1908. He retained power until his overthrow in 1888. The islands and coastal plains are located in the north. Dominion Voting System History: Ballot Fraud From Communist Venezuela?, Going 'Coup-Coup': Is Festering International Sore, George Soros – at Root of Crisis, Texas, Clinton, Hugo Chavez, smartmatic Venezuela’s claim stems from having maintained an armed force there and exercised acts of sovereignty by virtue…. No, the man was searching for food to feed his starving family. By the 17th century the Caracas region was exporting cacao to Mexico, where most of the market for that product was then located, enabling… …of foreign volunteers that the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda brought to his homeland failed to incite the populace to rise against Spanish rule. World War I was the trigger introducing Venezuela into the world oil market. As Maduro’s authoritarian regime has plunged Venezuela into humanitarian crisis, the socialist leader has often blamed the country’s troubles on economic sabotage by the U.S., evoking a … The cloud forests and Angel Falls of Venezuela. These two flag traditions from other former Spanish colonies influenced the flags of Ecuador throughout the 19th century. Chávez styled himself as the leader of the “Bolivarian Revolution,” a socialist political program for much of Latin America, named after Simón Bolívar, the South American independence hero. In Venezuela, on the other hand, the government of Antonio Guzmán Blanco (1870–88) virtually crushed the institutional life of the church, even attempting to legalize the marriage of priests. Check out our country profile, full of essential information about Venezuela's geography, history, government, economy, population, culture, religion and languages. They put in its place an interim junta, with the promise of elections to follow. At the same time, however, they feared that the…, With its Caribbean coast, Venezuela had long been in a relatively favourable position in regard to potential availability of markets. Along the southeastern Guiana Highlands, in the region called La Gran Sabana, are Angel Falls (Parecupá Merú), the highest waterfall in the world, measuring 3,212 feet (979 metres) from the cliffs of the massive Auyán tepui (Auyantepui) to the valley floor below. The country has a diverse and complex culture that is influenced by the cultures of a large number of ethnic groups living in the country. He ruled Venezuela until 1848. In the 18th century, an attempt to inject a measure of unification was met with widespread resistance led by Simón Bolívar, who remains a national hero. In 1522, the country was colonized by the Spanish amid resistance from the region’s indigenous people. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. History. …United States, introduced baseball to Venezuela in 1895 and to Puerto Rico in 1897. Along the course of the Orinoco River lie the Llanos, a relatively level region of savannas and tropical rainforests, where the land undulates only between low mesalike interfluves and shallow, meandering, braided river courses. With few exploited gold mines, Venezuela lurked in the shadows of the Spanish Empire for its first three centuries. In 1830 it became an independent country. In the 20th century Venezuela was transformed from a relatively poor agrarian society to a rapidly urbanizing one, a condition made possible by exploiting huge petroleum reserves. Francisco de Miranda lit the initial revolutionary flame in 1806. History of Venezuela Timeline Timeline Description: Venezuela, situated on the northern coast of South America, supports a wide range of extreme habitats including the Andes mountain range, the Amazon Basin rainforest, the Los Llanos grassland plains, the Orinoco Delta … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The highlands are sparsely settled but have tremendous resources; they abound in deposits of iron ore, gold, and diamonds, and they possess considerable hydroelectric potential, as well as hardwood forest resources. The Venezuelan landscape includes towering mountains, tropical jungles, broad river plains, and arid coastal plains, all of which provide a diversity of natural habitats and a range of challenges to social integration and economic development. The coastal plains extend from the Colombian border and the Gulf of Venezuela eastward to the foothills of the coastal mountains, which are broken in the east by the Unare River basin. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Venezuela achieved full independence as a separate country in 1830. Spanish explorers named the land "Little Venice" With an upcoming election, Chávez's involvement with U.S. oil exports, and the country becoming a leader of an increasingly united South America, this volume provides necessary background information to understand how Venezuela became what it is today. This book is quite concise, while it isn't leaving out any important occurrences. Oil Price Crash. This was the beginning of the modern economic history of Venezuela. By the 17th century the Caracas region was exporting cacao to Mexico, where most of the market for that product was then located, enabling…, As did the rest of Latin America, Venezuela saw the beginning of modern architecture in the 1930s with Art Deco. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Brief History of Venezuela: Venezuela was inhabited by tribal peoples for thousands of years prior to the Spanish arriving. Physiographically, the Segovia Highlands, northwest of Barquisimeto, and the coastal ranges may also be considered parts of the Andes chain. The best examples of this are several government buildings in Caracas: the new City Hall (1933), by Gustavo Wallis; the Ministry of Public Works…, In Venezuela, Jesús Tenreiro-Degwitz’s Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana Headquarters in Cuidad Guayana (1967–68) was the first building to be erected in the centre of this new city. In the mid-2000s Venezuela funded the renovation of a dilapidated oil refinery in the Cienfuegos area of Cuba. Venezuela’s topography can be divided into three broad elevational divisions: the lowland plains, which rise from sea level to about 1,650 feet (500 metres), the mountains, which reach elevations of some 16,400 feet (5,000 metres), and the interior forested uplands, with scattered peaks above 6,550 feet (2,000 metres). – ancient Venezuela history with Graphics - Popular Top “Venezuela history” Free Download! Oil prices crashed, and exporting countries came under economic strain, after Saudi Arabia unleashed... Caracazo Riots. The two branches of the Andes that traverse northwestern Venezuela, including the country’s highest peaks, are northeastward extensions of the Colombian Andes’ Cordillera Oriental. Venezuela boasts a long and storied history. Dominica’s claim is based on geographical criteria, since the island rises from a long submarine sandbank, the Aves Ridge, which apparently connects it with Dominica. A strong outburst…. The following discussion focuses on Venezuelan history from the time of European settlement. At first, Venezuela was joined with Colombia and Ecuador as part of a state called Gran Colombia. Creoles in the region wanted an expansion of the free trade that was benefiting their plantation economy. On the other hand, the republic since 1958 has been more democratic and politically stable than most other Latin American nations, and its economic prospects remain strong, particularly in regard to the petroleum industry. Occupying more than two-fifths of the country’s land area, it is the most remote and least explored part of Venezuela. Venezuela has experienced dramatic economic growth with the oil boom of the 1940’s and 50’s. With Venezuela’s oil-dependent economy in a tailspin, the newly elected administration of Carlos Andres... Coup Attempts. Columbus lands at the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, a continental landmass of South America. Skip to main content.ca Hello, Sign in. History of Venezuela. Venezuela was named by Europeans during the 1499 Alonzo de Hojeda expedition. Spanish rule was administered from a distance, leaving the various regions to develop separately from the capital, Caracas. Updates? These changes, however, have been accompanied by imbalances among the country’s regions and socioeconomic groups, and Venezuela’s cities have swelled because of a massive and largely uncontrolled migration from rural areas, as well as mass immigration, much of it illegal, from Colombia and other neighbours. Tepui in Venezuela Where Is Venezuela? Within this region is the only desert in Venezuela—the sand dunes around the city of Coro. Year 1498, History of Venezuela, August 14, Christopher Columbus, Age of Discovery, 1490s, Discoveries, South America, 15th Century, Politics, Modern History, Earth, Solar System, Milky Way. …1999, devastating mud slides in Venezuela in December 1999. In 1913 the concession was transferred to a British-Dutch operator, the Royal Dutch-Shell Oil Company. …of a tense dispute between Venezuela and Dominica. Was the Incan civilization located in Mexico? If that's not enough, click over to our collection of world maps and flags. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Democratic rule. An estimated 190,000 people were evacuated, but thousands of others, likely between 10,000 and 30,000, were killed. Books. During the 19th century Venezuela was ruled by military dictators called Caudillos. NOW 50% OFF! Infoplease has everything you need to know about Venezuela. Venezuela, like many Latin American countries, has a high percentage of urban poverty, a massive foreign debt, and widespread governmental patronage and corruption. Venezuela administers a number of Caribbean islands and archipelagos, among which are Margarita Island, La Blanquilla, La Tortuga, Los Roques, and Los Monjes. Venezuela has a high crime rate, but he wasn’t going to serve vigilante justice to an enemy. Venezuela is bounded by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the southwest and west. Among the larger tepuis in the southeast are Camón, Chimanta, and the famous Mount Roraima, which rises to 9,094 feet (2,772 metres) along the Guyanese border. In 1958 Venezuela’s navy and air force forced out the military ruler. This is a whole app is very easy to use. Like the lowland savannas of the Llanos, the tepuis experience extreme rainy and dry seasons. The Venezuelan military has long been concerned with the highlands because of the long-standing territorial dispute with Guyana, as well as illegal crossings of people, cattle, and narcotics over the Colombian and Brazilian borders. The app cover whole Venezuela history from Pre–1522 to 1999. https://www.britannica.com/place/Venezuela, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Venezuela, Library of Congress - Research and Reference Services - Venezuela, Venezuela - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Venezuela - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Cattle raising and oil exploration predominate in this sparsely populated region, which experiences river flooding in summer and drought in winter. For a treatment of the country in its regional context, see Latin America, history of. For whom was Bolivia named? Elevations there range from 1,600 to 5,500 feet (490 to 1,680 metres). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In Venezuela, the government of President Nicolás Maduro and the opposition are engaged in a bitter power struggle. The South American country of Venezuela is located on the northern coast of the continent. Beautiful “History of Venezuela” for all citizens of Venezuela! Venezuela's early history was marked by revolutions, counterrevolutions, and dictatorships. Because Venezuela has a rather violent and dramatic history, a complete and comprehensive history would contain many books and thousands of pages. Venezuela was a part of a country called Gran Colombia until 1829. Within these broad divisions, seven physiographic regions can be distinguished: the islands and coastal plains, including the Orinoco delta; the Lake Maracaibo Lowlands; the Mérida and Perijá ranges of the Andes Mountains; the coastal mountain system (with its Coastal and Interior ranges); the northwestern valleys and hill ranges, also called the Segovia Highlands; the Llanos; and the Guiana Highlands. Venezuela also has had a long dispute with Colombia over the delimitation of maritime boundaries in the Gulf of Venezuela and around the archipelago of Los Monjes. Originally inhabited by Carib and Arawak Indians, Venezuela was claimed as a Spanish territory by Christopher Columbus in 1498. Some of the restrictions were later relaxed, but on the whole anticlericalism remained dominant. …present-day Colombia, Panama (after 1751), Venezuela, and Ecuador, was created in 1717–23 and reconstituted in 1740, opening a new era. Professor of Latin-American History, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. The refinery…, …politician who was president of Venezuela (1999–2013). On the other hand, the republic since 1958 … Venezuela’s social and political ills have been compounded by natural disasters such as the floods that devastated sections of Caracas, La Guaira, and other coastal areas in late 1999. Actually, Venezuela leads in that department, going back to Carrasquel and Aparicio in the 1950s, the Reds’ David Concepción in the 1970s, and more recently the White Sox’s Ozzie Guillén and the Indians’ acrobatic wizard Omar Visquel. The result is a major turning point in the modern history of Venezuela. Venezuela is a country located on the continent of South America. The history begins with Columbus's third voyage of discovery from Spain. It houses a population of around 31,689,176 individuals. A tranquil bay was described as "Little Venice" or "Venezuela" and the name stuck. Between the high Andean ranges are Lake Maracaibo and its associated lowlands; this basin is one of the main oil-producing regions of the country. Venezuela, country located at the northern end of South America. For centuries the indigenous peoples of Venezuela lived by farming but also by hunting and fishing. Riots, martial law and general strike follow, with hundreds killed in street violence. Farther east is the Orinoco delta, which opens onto the Atlantic Ocean through a number of distributaries (caños); an early gateway to the settlement of the interior, it is a low, dank, and swampy area heavily dissected by streams. From Belize to Gran Colombia, step back in time and journey through the empires and countries of Latin America. The republic’s development pattern has been unique among Latin American countries in terms of the speed, sequence, and timing of economic and demographic growth. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The national capital, Caracas, is Venezuela’s primary centre of industry, commerce, education, and tourism. …when the United States supported Venezuela’s claims to that mineral- and timber-rich territory. In 2015, Obama declared Venezuela an “extraordinary threat to national security,” a bewildering assertion considering the country has never started a war in its history. In 1522, Nueva Toledo became the first permanent Spanish settlement in South America. After that date Venezuela elected presidents to lead the country. Two years later Venezuela was the largest oil exporter in the world. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Other major waterfalls in the region are Torón, Karuay, and Yuri. 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