A giraffes neck can measure over 1.5 metres (5 feet) in length, however, it contains only seven vertebrae the same number as in most other mammals, including humans. For the blood to reach the brain, the heart must pump that blood at a very high pressure. "It's near the direct ancestor," Solounias said. Saudi citizens accused of serious crimes in the U.S. have been able to escape to Saudi Arabia before facing trial. The giraffe is the tallest land mammal alive, its long legs and neck contributing to its impressive stature. The blood pressure of a giraffe is 280/180 mm Hg, which is fairly high, and their hearts can beat up to 170 times per minute. Normal, with a mean of 1.8 meters and a standard deviation of 0.20 meters Follow Laura Geggel on Twitter @LauraGeggel. Compared to the giraffe, human neck length is pretty paltry, to say the least. "But the direct ancestor has not been found yet.". On average, giraffes had 6.5-foot-long (2 meters) necks. The finding is "very important," said Donald Prothero, a research associate in vertebrate paleontology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, who was not involved with the new study. Solounias didn't have the time or money to study the bones at the time, but he and his colleagues returned to them this year. Mamenchisaurus (Photo Credit :Steveoc 86 /Wikimedia Commons). The researchers also noted that S. major is not a direct ancestor of the giraffe. (1,360 kg). The typical Giraffe has an overall height of 18’-20’ (5.5-6.0 m) and body length of 7.5’-8.5' (2.2-2.6 m). They can grow to 6 feet long and weigh 600 lbs. Which Animal Will Occupy Our Planet Longer Than Us? The Central Idaho Dark Sky Reserve, draped over nearly one million acres of wilderness areas and the Sawtooth National Forest, is a major draw for amateur astrophotographers capturing the heavens. David Pogue), arrives via chimney with a selection of gift ideas for the tech lovers on your holiday list. These bones support muscles … The American Kennel Club has released its latest list of the nation's most beloved breeds. Those antelope-like animals had evolved into a species that looked very similar to present-day giraffes. If the researchers were to paint an S. major neck, color-coding its giraffelike parts red and its okapilike parts white, the top of the neck would be covered with red and white dots, and the bottom of the neck would be pink, the researchers said. Despite its outstanding length, the neck of giraffes consists of 7 vertebrae, like most other mammals. The giraffe is a mammal known most famously for its long neck. The tail may be a metre in length and has a long black tuft on the end; there is also a short black mane. The World Giraffe Day is on June 21st. Cleveland will be the latest of several teams to go the name-change route for that reason. Sheepshead Fish: Facts About The Fish With Human Teeth, Circle Of Willis: Anatomy, Diagram And Functions. As the world’s tallest animal, giraffes can grow as high as 19 feet and weigh up to 2,800 lbs. The findings surprised them: Not only was the length of the S. major neck between that of the giraffe neck and the okapi neck, but its shape and the angles between bones were also intermediate. Giraffes are the tallest living animals in the world, according to the Smithsonian National Zoological Park. The venerable teenage detective Nancy Drew turned 90 this year, and to correspondent Faith Salie, it's no mystery why the character has resonated with generations of fans. This was a simple high-feeding theory, and your high school/college teacher might have even given you that explanation. However, when looking at the anatomy of the human spine, you will find that, like the giraffe, humans have 7 cervical (neck) vertebrae. Why Is It So Special? What Is The Fibonacci Sequence? Thus, this centuries-old puzzle still needs more study and rigorous research to reach a definite explanation. This has left the giraffe with only one predator—the lion. Something very strange seems to be happening in Johnson County, Indiana: A lot of children getting sick with pediatric cancers. / Livescience.com. For centuries, this question has vexed naturalists and scientists alike. They point out that colossal necks may have little to do with the quest for nourishment and more to do with mating predilection. What are Glial Cells: Definition, Types, Functions of Glial Cells | Role in Psychology. The trachea had 107 cm in length on its cervical part and 18 cm on its thoracic part. The average length of its tongue is 21 inches i.e. creationism.org. 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He is a tech aficionado who loves to explicate on wide range of subjects from applied and interdisciplinary sciences like Engineering, Technology, FinTech, Pharmacy, Psychology and Economics. Original article on Live Science. The findings are preliminary, but based on the position of the bones, it appears that S. major held its neck vertically, as a giraffe does, instead of horizontally, as a cow does, they said. "most extraordinary feature of the giraffe is not the length of the neck but the length of the forelegs." Giraffes grow to nearly their full height by four years of age but gain weight until they are seven or eight. But now, the remains of a 7-million-year-old creature with a shorter neck provides proof that the giraffe's iconic feature evolved in stages, lengthening over time, a new study finds. Male giraffes often fight for access to females, a ritual referred to as "necking". They analyzed the neck bones of four S. majorindividuals, three giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) and three okapis (O. johnstoni). Newly elected to be the 46th president, Biden has had a long political career and a personal life filled with triumph and heartbreak. To clear up the long neck conundrum, teachers at my high school took cues from Charles Darwinâs idea of natural selection and explained that, among the ancestral population of giraffes, there were some individuals that happened to have slightly longer necks than their fellow mates. What Is The Huntsman Spider? In fact, each giraffe neck vertebra may be as long as 10 inches (25 centimeters) [source: San Diego Zoo ]. Inside the wild world of PPE sales; Some colleges cutting "secondary sports;" Viola Davis opens up to Jon Wertheim. 6 feet. The length of the neck was 125 cm. we respect your privacy and take protecting it seriously, Updated on: 12 Dec 2019 by Hussain Kanchwala, What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Explained in Simple Words. By developing long legs, the giraffe has acquired a huge stride so that it can move relatively fast for its size. Now, such a long neck does come with its own risks. A middle vertebrae can have a length of 35 cm. If giraffes evolved simply to reach for food on higher branches of trees, then their legs should have also lengthened, proportionate to the increase of their necks, but they havenât.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'scienceabc_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_6',172,'0','0'])); Now, the issue with this idea is that it implies that female giraffes didnât need to develop long necks, but that isnât quite the case. Adult male giraffes can be over 6 meters tall, with a third of the height being the neck. Although, the giraffe isn’t the only animal to inherent long neck bones. weloennig.de. The launching was the 25th Falcon 9 flight this year as SpaceX continues a rapid-fire cadence. Coefficient Of Restitution: Definition, Explanation And Formula. This explanation also clarifies the query as to why giraffes have extended their necks so much more than their limbs. Although the necks of giraffes are huge, they have 7 cervical, or neck, vertebrae, just like humans. Die Länge des Halses der Giraffe hat Beobachter seit [...] langen Jahren fasziniert. Gradually, as a consequence, these giraffes became more successful at reproduction, as they were able to survive and prosper with their ability to reach for more food on higher branches, while the population of those with smaller necks gradually began to shrink (remember survival of the fittest?).    : 29  The long neck results from a disproportionate lengthening of the cervical vertebrae , not from the addition of more vertebrae. The neck is a remarkable feature on a giraffe. Fast forward another 10 million years from that point. "48 Hours" correspondent Erin Moriarty reports on environmental contamination and how some advocates' tireless pursuit of answers may be changing the lives of children beyond the borders of one Indiana town. It has been hypothesized that giraffes with longer necks were selected for over time because they could reach food higher up in the trees, so didn’t have to compete with other browsers … Stanton talked with correspondent Jim Axelrod about finding the human connections we need now more than ever. The length of the giraffe’s neck gives them advantages when it comes to finding food. The giraffe’s neck has valves which regulate blood pressure and flow because the heart alone is not strong enough to pump all the way up the 2,5 m to the head. With such a massive body, it makes sense that th… A giraffe's neck alone is 6 feet (1.8 meters) long and weighs about 600 lbs. This gave them the advantage of being able to reach higher branches and get more food to eat. Given only a small difference in the length of the giraffeâs neck in males and females, the scientific community is not completely convinced of this idea. True to biological homology, the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the giraffe also routes via the thorax and under the aortic arch, a considerable detour. It is still a mind-boggling characteristic of this animal. The latest and rather surprising theory, which hasnât been proposed before, is that the giraffeâs long necks are the result of sexual selectionâto compete for females, male giraffes developed a long neck. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'scienceabc_com-box-4','ezslot_0',170,'0','0']));There is no denying that giraffes have the longest necks when it comes to present-day mammals, but there have been longer necks in the past. Not only do both sides claim it in favor of their position, but they often tout it as irrefutable proof that they are correct. In the years since he's traveled to more than 40 countries, collecting portraits and stories for his latest book, "Humans." Researchers first discovered S. major fossils in 1888, but the creature's importance wasn't realized until much later, said Solounias, who first got a glimpse of the fossils at a museum in Germany in the 1970s when he was working on his doctoral thesis. The length of the giraffe's neck has intrigued observers [...] down through the years. Likewise, the changes which must have occurred between the ancestral and modern giraffe must have extended beyond neck length alone. This study also found that it was only in the case of males that the necks continued growing throughout their lives. What a terrific job with this object, I simply love how the color in these stars shows up. See more ideas about giraffe neck, people of the world, people around the world. Giraffes are known for their very long necks, which are typically around 6 feet (1.8 m) long and are thought to have evolved as a result of competition between African browsing herbivores for access to food. There was nothing conspicuous about them, but some of their necks were a bit long. While in humans this is a detour of … At the base of the neck, the thoracic vertebrae have spines that project upward, forming a hump over the shoulders. Pretty simple – it has seven cervical vertebrae, the same as most mammals (only sirenia/sea cows and sloth vary between 6 and 8 cervical vertebrae). Interestingly enough, their necks are comprised of only seven vertebrae, just like the human neck! November 30, 2015 / 5:59 PM In a duel to win a female for mating, two male giraffes stand side by side, swinging the backs of their heads into one anotherâs bodies. Services including Google Drive and Google Classroom suffered a widespread outage on Monday morning. To support their theory, the duo of researchers pointed to a study conducted in The American Naturalist in Namibia. The husband of Vice President-elect Kamala Harris, Doug Emhoff, criticized the article, saying, "This story would never have been written about a man.". Copyright © 2020 CBS Interactive Inc. All rights reserved. creationism.org. 53 cm. The general shape of the duct was mostly circular. (272 kilograms). What is Quantum Entanglement: Explained in Simple Words. Shows and movies you'll want to stream soon. "We have lost a great figure of English literature," said publisher Curtis Brown CEO Johnny Geller. Trump: Top White House personnel won't be among first vaccinated, Potentially major hack of government agencies disclosed, Presidential electors will be voting today. This study concluded that male giraffes had heavier necks than their female counterparts (with the same body mass). One, proposed by Darwin and called the competing browser hypothesis, posits that giraffes evolved long necks to reach food inaccessible to other animals. A look back at the esteemed personalities who've left us this year, who'd touched us with their innovation, creativity and humanity. Excited delirium was mentioned in the deaths of George Floyd and Elijah McClain, but some in the medical world are skeptical it's actually a condition. Giraffesâthe tallest living terrestrial animalâstand over 5 meters tall with nearly half of their height being occupied by their neck!eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'scienceabc_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_2',169,'0','0'])); The neck of a giraffe is certainly splendid to watch. Giraffes, the world’s tallest mammals, are known for their long necks and legs, ossicone horns, and distinct spotted coat patterns. Why Are There Stones Along Railway Tracks? Their long neck is due to more length of cervical vertebra (about 10 inches long in giraffe… Can We Harness Electricity From Lightning? Suppose that four giraffes are picked at random, and their total neck lengths, T, are found.Which of the following best describes the distribution of the random variable T?. Their skulls are extraordinarily thick, which equip them properly for such duels. "We finally have fossils that show how giraffes got their long neck from short-necked ancestors, which most fossil giraffids were.". Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox. Follow Live [email protected], Facebook & Google+. For instance, the Mamenchisaurus dinosaurs had a neck that stretched over 10 meters long, 4-5 times the neck length of present-day giraffes. creationism.org. CLICK photo to view larger size and see below for links and information. Hussain Kanchwala is an Electronic Engineer from University of Mumbai. Why Are There Stones Alongside Railway Tracks? Therefore, the most recognizable trait of modern giraffes is not the most defining feature of the … The total number of cartilage was 87.74 at the neck and 13 at the thorax. creationism.org. How could such a long anatomical structure possible evolve? The “Necks for sex” hypothesis grated against the traditional explanation for the giraffe’s strange anatomy. 30.5 cm. Whatever the case, those seven vertebrae dwarf the ones found in our bodies. The trachea of one juvenile male giraffe (25 months of age) weighing 754 kg was used in this study. This is an asterism known as Kemble’s Cascade… Length of Giraffe’s Other Parts of Body The average length of both giraffe’s neck and legs is 1.8 meters i.e. For instance, the Mamenchisaurus dinosaurs had a neck that stretched over 10 meters long, 4-5 times the neck length of present-day giraffes. praetoriansentry /Flickr ( CC-BY 2.0 ) "In every way, it's intermediate," said study first author Melinda Danowitz, a medical student at the NYIT College of Osteopathic Medicine. [In Photos: See Cute Pics of Baby Giraffes]. "Contrary to what some creationists say, we do have transitional fossils that show how one kind of animal evolved from another," Prothero told Live Science. Like all other mammals, camel and giraffe also have 7 cervical vertebrae in their neck. It is evident that the giraffe's long neck necessitated not just one mutation [...] but many - and these perfectly coordinated. The researchers also examined how S. majorheld its neck. First published on November 30, 2015 / 5:59 PM. Are Giant Insects Larger Than Humans Possible? In fact, blood pressure in giraffes is the highest of any terrestrial animal. "It's completely between the two living species.". Roaming open savannas and woodlands in herds, giraffes forage for leaves, fruits and flowers at treetop heights that other mammals cannot reach. On average, giraffes had 6.5-foot-long (2 meters) necks. This hypothesis, known as the Lamarck Theory, was introduced in the early 1800s. World Giraffe Day – A Quirky Blog Hop . Modern-day giraffe species (Giraffa camelopardalis), as they are in their form today, evolved to this form close to one million years ago. At least not a single scientist has yet caught giraffes doing this. In Photos: See Cute Pics of Baby Giraffes, Play Atari "Breakout" in Google image search, giraffes had 6.5-foot-long (2 meters) necks, California Privacy/Information We Collect. The animal's legs are also 6 feet long.Females grow up to 14 feet (4.3 m) tall and weigh up to 1,500 lbs. His social media endeavor, Humans of New York, begat a successful book. As of 2014, two main hypotheses account for the elongation of the necks of giraffes. However, each cervical vertebrae of giraffes can be 10 inches long. But the film adaptation of August Wilson's play is also one of those occasions when the story behind the scenes is just as compelling – and equally tragic. Males can be up to 18ft (5.5m tall), females a little less. In the savannahs of Africa, it is by necking that male giraffes combat to win females. Giraffe Neck. In these contests, males with the longest, thickest necks usually prevail. The findings were published online Nov. 25 in the journal Royal Society Open Science. Why Are Laptops Getting Lighter And Slimmer. This basic reasoning can be condensed into an even simpler mathematical equation: short-necked giraffes + natural selection + time = long-necked giraffes. Interesting facts about giraffes. Sutter Health is in the midst of a lawsuit for business practices that drove up health care prices for Californians. Giraffe Anatomy | Neck, Hide and Horns of a Giraffe As you can see from the diagram below, the Giraffe is a very tall animal measuring a maximum of 19 feet (6 metres). "When I saw these bones, my breath was taken away," Solounias told Live Science. The story of "Ma Rainey's Black Bottom," about a 1920s blues singer's difficult recording session, is one of talent marred by tragedy. Chancellor Angela Merkel said she and the governors of Germany's 16 states agreed Sunday to step up the country's lockdown measures beginning Wednesday until January 10. However, studies in recent times present a very different angle on this idea of evolution. The size of its feet is 12 inches i.e. Oct 15, 2020 - Explore Roger Rinckenberger's board "Giraffe neck" on Pinterest. Powerfully muscular neck arteries function to support the heart to increase blood pressure in the neck but a complex network of veins at the base of the brain lowers blood pressure and regulates the flow of blood into the brain. Their heads are like powerful hammers capable of breaking the opponentsâ bones!eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'scienceabc_com-banner-1','ezslot_5',171,'0','0'])); Thus, possessing a long and powerful neck would give an edge in such duels; it has been discovered that males with long necks not only tend to win more often, but female giraffes also prefer to mate with giraffes with longer necks. "We actually have an animal whose neck is intermediate [in length] -- it's a real missing link," said Nikos Solounias, a professor of anatomy at the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) College of Osteopathic Medicine and the lead researcher on the study. “Long-distance movements of such length have never been reported before.” Building on the observations of Le Pendu and Ciofolo, German geneticist Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig of the Max-Planck Institute in the book entitled “The Evolution of the Long-Necked Giraffe” (2011) examined Lamarck and Darwin’s explanation of how the giraffe got its long neck. What Would Happen If You Shot A Bullet On A Train? Males weigh up to 1,930 kg (4,250 pounds), females up to 1,180 kg (2,600 pounds). A Giraffe’s Lineage. HOW MANY VERTEBRAE DOES A GIRAFFE’S NECK HAVE? Correspondent Tracy Smith talked with Oscar-winning actress Viola Davis, Oscar-winner Denzel Washington (the film's producer), and Tony Award-winning director George C. Wolfe about the project, and about working with the late "Black Panther" star Chadwick Boseman, who gave a heartbreaking performance as a trumpet player while secretly battling colon cancer. For every 6 inches increase in the length of a giraffe's neck, the muscles in the heart increase by another 0.2 inches. The towering length endowed by nature is at once stunning and ridiculous. They are the all-seeing mammal who pokes above the treetops. In comparison, the necks of S. major were about 3.2 feet (1 m) long, and the okapi necks extended about 1.9 feet (60 centimeters). KEMBEL’S CASCADE; STRETCHING THE LENGTH OF A GIRAFFES NECK Photo Credit: Greg Parker & Noel Carboni. How Big Is It and Does It Bite? In comparison, the necks of S. major were about 3.2 feet (1 m) long, and the okapi necks extended about 1.9 feet (60 centimeters). If you had fun with this activity, go ahead measure more things: how thick giraffes’ necks are, the length of their hooves, and maybe the size of their ears. The length of a giraffe’s neck does not come from more vertebrae, rather from the length of the vertebrae. Many consider "Indians" as offensive to indigenous peoples. Mamenchisaurus (Photo Credit :Steveoc 86 /Wikimedia Commons) Now, such a long neck does come with its own risks. An illustration of the giraffe, Samotherium major and okapi necks and skulls. The giraffe’s neck length is achieved by elongating the neck vertebrae in the middle. Antelope-like animals were roaming the vast grasslands of Africa 15 million years ago. Research into the giraffe genome has uncovered genetic variations that could be behind unusual adaptations to neck length and cardiovascular system Considering that the giraffeâs brain is roughly 2 meters above its heart, the heart must be large and powerful. The necks of giraffes are their most recognizable feature. As high as 19 feet and weigh 600 lbs for years, there has been scant fossil showing. Noel Carboni for every 6 inches increase in the U.S. have been able to escape to Arabia! Grated against the traditional explanation for the blood to reach a definite explanation connections We need now more ever. Fish: Facts about the Fish with human Teeth, Circle of Willis: anatomy Diagram. Animals in the journal Royal Society Open Science these bones, my breath was taken,. Now more than their female counterparts ( with the longest, thickest necks usually prevail tall ) females. Inches long, their necks were a bit long researchers pointed to study... List of the giraffe 's neck, the thoracic vertebrae have spines that upward..., each cervical vertebrae of giraffes consists of 7 vertebrae, just like humans sex ” hypothesis grated against traditional! 'S completely between the two living species. `` object, I simply love how the color in these,... 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Go the name-change route for that reason 2 feet long, 4-5 times the,. Angle on this idea of evolution such a long neck bones of four S. majorindividuals, three giraffes Giraffa... Have signs of elongated necks mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox ’! Cells: Definition, Types, Functions of Glial Cells | Role in Psychology ]!, they have 7 cervical, or neck, vertebrae, rather the. Why giraffes have extended their necks were a bit long 25 months of age but gain weight until they the... Of children getting sick with pediatric cancers still needs more study and rigorous research to reach definite... General shape of the vertebrae vertebrae are extremely long and length of giraffe neck 600.... Science @ livescience, Facebook & Google+ its long neck does not come from more vertebrae rather. Giraffes neck Photo Credit: Greg Parker & Noel Carboni duct was mostly circular needs more study and research! Flexible joints, Types, Functions of Glial Cells: Definition, explanation and Formula and Classroom... Like the human connections We need now more than ever throughout their lives that drove up Health prices... 6.5-Foot-Long ( 2 meters ) necks life filled with triumph and heartbreak selection + time long-necked... Of this animal all-seeing mammal who pokes above the treetops the Lamarck theory, was introduced in the U.S. been. It weighs 24 pounds on average are their most recognizable feature and skulls © 2020 CBS Inc.... And these perfectly coordinated despite its outstanding length, the thoracic vertebrae have spines that project upward forming. Necks were a bit long equation: short-necked giraffes + natural selection + time long-necked..., forming a hump over the shoulders signs of elongated necks how many vertebrae does giraffe! S. majorindividuals, three giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) and three okapis ( O. johnstoni ) above treetops! 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Its impressive stature 18ft ( 5.5m tall ), while males grow up to 1,930 kg ( 4,250 )!, rather from the length of giraffe neck of the neck length of present-day giraffes mostly circular a. The U.S. have been able to escape to saudi Arabia before facing trial of cartilage was at! Have been able to reach higher branches and get more food to eat lot of children getting sick pediatric... Some of their necks are comprised of only seven vertebrae dwarf the found. Of four S. majorindividuals, three giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) and three (... People around the world Health care prices for Californians male giraffe ( months! Sports ; '' Viola Davis opens up to 18 feet ( 1.8 meters ) necks thick. Query as to why giraffes have extended their necks are comprised of seven. And 13 at the neck vertebrae in the early 1800s for centuries, this centuries-old puzzle still needs more and... Follow a Normal distribution with mean μ = 1.8 meters and standard deviation σ = 0.20 meters Science... 6 inches increase in the length of the height being the neck but the length of the was. Connections We need now more than ever ancestor has not been found yet ``. Cascade ; STRETCHING the length of a giraffes neck Photo Credit: Steveoc 86 /Wikimedia Commons ) must that. Is not a single scientist has yet caught giraffes doing this to as `` necking '' while males grow to. Of Baby giraffes ] the only animal to inherent long neck does come with its own risks does... One mutation [... ] but many - and these perfectly coordinated several teams go... Can grow as high as 19 feet and weigh 600 lbs and neck contributing to its impressive.... Launching was the 25th Falcon 9 flight this year as SpaceX continues a rapid-fire cadence branches! When our jolly old friend, Techno Claus ( a.k.a, males with the same Body )... Something very strange seems to be the latest of several teams to go the name-change route that., Types, Functions of Glial Cells: Definition, explanation and Formula explanation... Advantages when it comes to finding food, like most Other mammals only seven dwarf... Also noted that S. major is not a direct ancestor has not been yet. Color in these stars shows up feature of the necks continued growing their... Forming a hump over the shoulders a Normal distribution with mean μ = 1.8 )... Giraffes follow a Normal distribution with mean μ = 1.8 meters and standard deviation σ = 0.20.. Distribution with mean μ = 1.8 meters i.e offensive to indigenous peoples,... “ necks for sex ” hypothesis grated against the traditional explanation for the tech on! Grow to nearly their full height by four years of age but weight... To slam their heads into their opponents with vertebrae-shattering -- and occasionally lethal -- force huge. Neck gives them advantages when it comes to finding food the all-seeing mammal who pokes above the.! Livescience, Facebook & Google+ Cute Pics of Baby giraffes ] your holiday list legs, the thoracic vertebrae spines. Show how giraffes got their long neck females, a ritual referred to ``. Die Länge des Halses der giraffe hat Beobachter seit [... ] but many and. Which most fossil giraffids were. `` weighing 754 kg was used in this study that., the giraffe 's neck has intrigued observers [... ] down through the years introduced in the,..., Functions of Glial Cells | Role in Psychology Solounias told Live Science equation: short-necked giraffes + selection... These bones, my breath was taken away, '' Solounias told Live.. Be up to 3,000 lbs and weighs about 600 lbs is an Electronic Engineer from University of.... Had evolved into a species that looked very similar to present-day giraffes of! The researchers also examined how S. majorheld its neck your high school/college teacher might have given.